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Junagarh: The population of Junagarh was predominantly Hindu but the ruler, the Nawab, was Muslim. Contrary to the wishes of his subjects the Nawab decided to accede to Pakistan. When Pakistan notified India that it had accepted the accession, India protested on the legal grounds that a Muslim ruler could not decide the accession of his state contrary to the expressed will of his Hindu subjects. Instead, India advocated the alternative rule, that the people of the princely states had the inherent right to express their preference for the country they wished to join. The Indian army subsequently entered Junagarh on October 09, 1947, and a referendum was held. As expected, the people of Junagarh voted for accession to India. India thereby established the principle that, in the case of a conflict between the people and the ruler of a princely state, the people, not the ruler, had the right to choose accession.

Manavadar: Another princely state with a Muslim ruler but with the majority of the population being Hindu. The ruler decided to accede to Pakistan, upon which Indian forces occupied Manavadar on October 22, 1947.

Hyderabad: In Hyderabad, an independent state with a population of 14,000,000 and an area of 70,000 sq. miles, the ruler was Muslim and the population was a mix of Muslims and Hindus, with the Hindus being in majority. Using the Junagarh principle, the Indians invaded the State of Hyderabad (Deccan) on September 13, 1948 and forced the Nizam, the Muslim Ruler, and his small ill-equipped army to surrender.

Goa, Daman and Diu: Although the British eventually gained control of most of the subcontinent, the Portuguese remained in the areas of Goa, Daman and Diu even after the British left the subcontinent in 1947. In 1961, India attacked these small areas with overwhelming force and the Portuguese, who did not have any large military presence in the area, were forced to accept the Indian occupation.

Sikkim: A small kingdom of about 7000 square kilometres, Sikkim is situated between Tibet and India. The rulers and the population were Buddhists and had close cultural and political relationships with Tibet. After the British left the subcontinent in 1947, India managed security and foreign affairs of the tiny kingdom, letting it keep its autonomy otherwise. Bu when pro-freedom riots occurred in Sikkim in 1975, India sent in her forces and occupied this small country.


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